What is Diabetes?
Diabetes Mellitus, also known as Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic medical condition it can be last forever and can be controlled. If your diabetes blood sugar level and blood glucose level are too high in this disease, you can get this disease. You get the glucose from the food that you eat. If your pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin, which controls blood sugar levels, your chances of getting Diabetes Mellitus are high. In other words, the absence of insulin causes diabetes.
The patients suffering from diabetes mellitus have insufficient production of insulin, which causes hyperglycemia. There are a lot of projections on Diabetes globally. According to the surveys and research in 2019, around 463 Million adults ages 20 to 79 had Diabetes. The projection tells that this number will rise to 700 million in 2045.
According to the International Diabetes Federation top 5 countries ranking with high diabetes prevalence(% age of population ages between 20 to 79) are:
- Kiribati 22.50
- Sudan 22.10
- Tuvalu 22.10
- Mauritius 22.00
- New Caledonia 21.80
There are 30.3 million people in the U.S. who have diabetes mellitus, which is 9.4% of the total population of the U.S., and 7.3 million people are those who have Diabetes and they don’t know about it.
How many Diabetes types are there?
There are two significant diabetes types, which are diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2. In diabetes type 1, the pancreas suffers from an autoimmune attack inside the body, generating abnormal antibodies. It prevents enough production of insulin, which maintains the diabetes blood sugar level. In diabetes type 1, the patient has to do insulin medication for durability.
Diabetes Type 1
In this type, our body generates the antibodies and inflammatory cells by mistake, leading to the patients and can damage their body and tissues. In people who have diabetes type 1, our immune system mistakenly attacks the pancreas, which produces insulin.
Exposure to some viral infection and other toxins present in our environment can trigger our immune system to produce abnormal antibodies, which can damage the pancreas cells, producing insulin to maintain the blood sugar level. In humans, these antibodies can be recognized in most patients, and from it, it is easy to evaluate which patient is at risk to get diabetes type 1.
This type of Diabetes mostly occurs in lean individuals, the people under the age of 30, but in older patients, this diabetes type 1 tends to occur on occasion. Out of total patients of Diabetes Mellitus, there are 90% of patients have diabetes type 2, and the other 10% have diabetes type 1.
Diabetes Type 2
In this type, the patient’s body is able to produce insulin but can’t use the way it should, diabetes type 2, also known as insulin resistance. In humans, the pancreas makes a hormone known as insulin, the energy called glucose you get from the food you eat, made through insulin.
Diabetes type 2, recently referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM). Diabetes type 2 mostly occurs at the age above 30, and the prevalence increases with age — people with poor eating habits, lack of exercise, and higher body weight.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is common in determined ethnic groups. The estimated prevalence in non-Hispanic Caucasians is 7%, the estimated prevalence in Asian Americans is 8%, 13% in the Hispanic, 12.3% in Black grounds, and 20% to 50% in determined American communities. Diabetes mellitus occurs mostly in women during pregnancy, which is a prior history of Diabetes.
Other types of Diabetes Mellitus
This type of diabetes can occur during pregnancy, and it is temporary. According to reports, this occurs in 2% to 10% of all pregnancies. It can occur due to some noticeable changes in hormones due to pregnancy, causing blood sugar evaluation, which is called gestational diabetes.
In this type of diabetes, your elevated blood sugar evaluation could cause some other medical conditions. In such conditions, the disease can cause the destruction of the pancreatic tissue like chronic pancreatitis( like pancreas inflammation because of excessive alcohol). It can be trauma or if you had surgery of removal of the pancreas.
Hormonal disturbance can be the cause of the occurrence of Diabetes, like if you have excessive growth in hormone production. There are two types of hormonal growth one acromegaly and the other one Cushing’s syndrome. In this Cushing syndrome, your adrenal glands generate excessive cortisol, which causes blood sugar evaluation. In acromegaly, a tumor in the brain is the reason for the excessive production of growth hormone.
Some medicines can disturb the diabetes level, and it can worsen because of taking medicine, which includes steroids.
Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
Some general diabetes mellitus symptoms are:
- Loss in weight
- Blurry vision
- Increase in thirst
- Increase in hunger
- Skin problems
- Tingling in feet
- Slow healing
Symptoms of Diabetes Type 1
- Utmost hunger
- Increased thirst
- Unexpected weight loss
- Blur vision
Symptoms of Diabetes Type 2
- Utmost hunger
- Increased thirst
- Increased Urination
- Slow healing
- Blur vision
Causes of Diabetes
There are no exact causes of Diabetes type 1 because, in type, the immune system attacks mistakenly for some reason and destroy beta cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. The cause could be some viruses that provoke the immune system to attack it or be because of some genes.
But Diabetes mellitus type 2 can occur because of the fusion of lifestyle and genetics factors. If you are overweight, there are high chances of getting diabetes mellitus type 2. The more weight in your belly, the more resistant your cells become to insulin. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is also a genetic disease, so there are chances of getting it from genes like if family members are overweight, they can get diabetes through it.
Risk Factors Diabetes
If you are a teenager/child then you are more likely to get the diabetes mellitus type 1, you can get if your family member is carrying this disease because of genes.
But diabetes mellitus type 2 can increase if you are:
- Over weighted
- Above the age of 30
- Family member with this condition
- suffering from high blood pressure
- suffering from high cholesterol
There are some complications which are associated with diabetes:
- Hearing loss
- Heart disease
- Skin infections
There are some other complications which are related to gestational diabetes which can harm both mother and baby:
- Low B.P
- Can get diabetes type 2 in the future
- Overweighted at birth
- Premature birth
Prevention of Diabetes
Prevention of Diabetes mellitus type 1 can’t be avoided because it directly comes from the immune system’s problems. There are also some causes of diabetes mellitus type 2, which are not preventable, like age or genes. There are many other preventable factors, but they need some strategies to improve your diet routine and physical fitness. If you are in a condition of prediabetes, then here are some things you can do to prevent diabetes mellitus type 2:
- Do some aerobic exercise for at least 150 minutes per week
- Remove saturated fats from your diet
- Remove trans fats from your diet
- Cut refined carbohydrates from your diet
- Eat but don’t fill your stomach at once
- If you are overweighted then loose 7% of total body
Foods that are beneficial in Diabetes Mellitus
- Fatty Fish
- Leafy greens
- Greek yogurt
- Chia seeds
If you are noticing the symptoms mentioned above, then go to your doctor and confirm it if you have or not. After that, you are diagnosed with Diabetes. Then you can take precautionary measures after a blood sugar test, and then you must follow a complete scheduled routine for staying healthy.